With the 45th anniversary of this 1970 book approaching in 2015, it would be good to review the book’s still-intact relevanceIt remains today on my top-ten list of essential reads.  The following is the second installment of my condensation of favorite sections and passages. –SB

Toffler, Alvin.  Future Shock.  Random House, 1970.

http://www.abebooks.com/9780553277371/Future-Shock-Toffler-Alvin-0553277375/plp

THE 800TH LIFETIME:  In the three short decades between now [1970] and the twenty-first century, millions of ordinary, psychologically normal people will face an abrupt collision with the future.  Citizens of the world’s richest and most technologically advanced nations, many of them, will find it increasingly painful to keep up with the incessant demand for change that characterizes our time.  For them, the future will have arrived too soon.

This book is about change and how we adapt to it.  It is about those who seem to thrive on change, who crest its waves joyfully, as well as those multitudes of others who resist it or seek flight from it. . . . It is about the future and the shock that its arrival brings.

Western society for the past 300 years has been caught up in a fire storm of change.  This storm, far from abating, now appears to be gathering force.  Change sweeps through the highly industrialized countries with waves of ever accelerating speed and unprecedented impact. . . .

. . .

. . . A strange new society is apparently erupting in our midst.  Is there a way to understand it, to shape its development? . . .

Much that now strikes us as incomprehensible would be far less so if we took a fresh look at the racing rate of change that makes reality seem, sometimes, like a kaleidoscope run wild.  For the acceleration of change does not merely buffet industries or nations.  It is a concrete force that reaches deep into our personal lives, compels us to act out new roles, and confronts us with the danger of a new and powerfully upsetting psychological disease.  This new disease can be called “future shock,” and a knowledge of its sources and symptoms helps explain many things that otherwise defy rational analysis.

THE UNPREPARED VISITOR:

The parallel term “culture shock” has already begun to creep into the popular vocabulary.  Culture shock is the effect that immersion in a strange culture has on the unprepared visitor.  Peace Corps volunteers suffer from it in Borneo or Brazil.  Marco Polo probably suffered from it in Cathay. . . .

. . . culture shock is relatively mild in comparison with the much more serious malady, future shock.  Future shock is the dizzying disorientation brought on by the premature arrival of the future.  It may well be the most important disease of tomorrow.

. . . unless intelligent steps are taken to combat it, millions of human beings will find themselves increasingly disoriented, progressively incompetent to deal rationally with their environments.  The malaise, mass neurosis, irrationality, and free-floating violence already apparent in contemporary life are merely a foretaste of what may lie ahead unless we come to understand and treat this disease.

Future shock is a time phenomenon, a product of the greatly accelerated rate of change in society.  It arises from the super-imposition of a new culture on an old one.  It is culture shock in one’s own society. . . .

Take an individual out of his own culture and set him down suddenly in an environment sharply different from his own, with a different set of cues to react to—different conceptions of time, space, work, love, religion, sex, and everything else—then cut him off from any hope of retreat to a more familiar social landscape, and the dislocation he suffers is doubly severe.  Moreover, if this new culture is itself in constant turmoil, and if—worse yet—its values are incessantly changing, the sense of disorientation will be still further intensified.  Given few clues as to what kind of behavior is rational under the radically new circumstances, the victim may well become a hazard to himself and others.

Now imagine not merely an individual but an entire society, an entire generation—including its weakest, least intelligent, and most irrational members—suddenly transported into this new world.  The result is mass disorientation, future shock on a grand scale. . . .

BREAK WITH THE PAST:

. . . what is occurring now is, in all likelihood, bigger, deeper, and more important than the industrial revolution. . . . a growing body of reputable opinion asserts that the present moment represents nothing less than the second great divide in human history, comparable in magnitude only with that first great break in historic continuity, the shift from barbarism to civilization.

. . . Kurt W. Marek . . . observes that . . . “We open our eyes like prehistoric man, we see a world totally new.”

One of the most striking statements of this theme has come from Kenneth Boulding, an eminent economist and imaginative social thinker.  In justifying his view that the present moment represents a crucial turning point in human history, Boulding observes that . . . “The world of today . . . is as different from the world in which I was born as that world was from Julius Caesar’s. . . . Almost as much has happened since I was born as happened before.”

. . . It has been observed, for example, that if the last 50,000 years of man’s existence were divided into lifetimes of approximately sixty-two years each, there have been about 800 such lifetimes.  Of these 800, fully 650 were spent in caves.

Only during the last seventy lifetimes has it been possible to communicate effectively from one lifetime to another—as writing made it possible to do.  Only during the last six lifetimes did masses of men ever see a printed word.  Only during the last four has it been possible to measure time with any precision.  Only in the last two has anyone anywhere used an electric motor.  And the overwhelming majority of all the material goods we use in daily life today have been developed within the present, the 800th, lifetime.

. . .

. . . if agriculture is the first stage of economic development and industrialism the second, we can now see that still another stage—the third—has suddenly been reached.  In about 1956 the United States became the first major power in which more than 50 percent of the non-farm labor force ceased to wear the blue collar of factory or manual labor.  Blue collar workers were outnumbered by those in the so-called white-collar occupations—in retail trade, administration, communications, research, education, and other service categories.  Within the same lifetime a society for the first time in human history not only threw off the yoke of agriculture, but managed within a few brief decades to throw off the yoke of manual labor as well.  The world’s first service economy had been born.

. . . Ten thousand years for agriculture.  A century or two for industrialism.  And now, opening before us—super-industrialism.

. . . Perhaps U Thant, Secretary General of the United Nations [1970], came closest to summarizing the meaning of the shift to super-industrialism when he declared that “The central stupendous truth about developed economies today is that they can have—in anything but the shortest run—the kind and scale of resources they decide to have. . . . It is no longer resources that limit decisions.  It is the decision that makes the resources.  This is the fundamental revolutionary change—perhaps the most revolutionary man has ever known.” . . .

. . .

In our lifetime the boundaries have burst.  Today the network of social ties is so tightly woven that the consequences of contemporary events radiate instantaneously around the world . . . .

. . .

. . . the final, qualitative difference between this and all previous lifetimes is the one most easily overlooked.  For we have not merely extended the scope and scale of change, we have radically altered its pace.  We have in our time released a totally new social force—a stream of change so accelerated that it influences our sense of time, revolutionizes the tempo of daily life, and affects the very way we “feel” the world around us. . . . this acceleration lies behind the impermanence—the transience—that penetrates and tinctures our consciousness, radically affecting the way we relate to other people, to things, to the entire universe of ideas, art and values.

To understand what is happening to us as we move into the age of super-industrialism, we must analyze the processes of acceleration and confront the concept of transience.  If acceleration is a new social force, transience is its psychological counterpart, and without an understanding of the role it plays in contemporary human behavior, all our theories of personality, all our psychology, must remain pre-modern.  Psychology without the concept of transience cannot take account of precisely those phenomena that are peculiarly contemporary.

By changing our relationship to the resources that surround us, by violently expanding the scope of change, and, most crucially, by accelerating its pace, we have broken irretrievably with the past.  We have cut ourselves off from the old ways of thinking, of feeling, of adapting.  We have set the stage for a completely new society and we are now racing toward it.  This is the crux of the 800th lifetime.  And it is this that calls into question man’s capacity for adaptation—how will he fare in this new society?  Can he adapt to its imperatives?  And if not, can he alter these imperatives?

Alvin Toffler’s “Future Shock:” The Strategy of Social Futurism  31 October 2014

Alvin Toffler’s “Future Shock:” Introduction  28 October 2014

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