TEMPERAMENTAL:  1.  Given to the manner of thinking, behaving, or relating characteristic to a specific person.  2.  Given to the distinguishing mental and physical characteristics of a human according to medieval physiology, resulting from dominance of one of the four humors.  [Latin temperare, to temper.] HUMORAL:  1.  Given to the determination of a person’s disposition and general health (thought in ancient and medieval physiology) by the relative proportions of the four fluids of the body, blood, phlegm, choler, and black bile.  Note:  Each of the four humors, namely blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile, or sanguis, phlegma, melancholia, and choler in Latin, were defined as warm or cold and moist or dry and associated with one of the four elements, and a superfluity of any one humor was thought to produce a characteristic disposition.  Blood, the warm, moist humor associated with the element fire, caused a ruddy complexion and a sanguine disposition, marked by courage, hope, and a readiness to fall in love.  Phlegm, the cold, moist humor associated with water, made one phlegmatic, or calm, sluggish, and unemotional.  Black bile, the cold, dry humor associated with earth, caused depression, or melancholy.  Yellow bile, the warm, dry humor associated with the air, made one choleric, or easily angered.  By the late 1500s, the word humour had become synonymous with temperament and was used especially to refer to one’s temperament when dominated by one of the four humors.  DEPRESSED:  1.  Low in spirits.  2.  Suffering from clinical depression; given to a mood disorder characterized usually by anhedonia, extreme sadness, poor concentration, sleep problems, loss of appetite, and feelings of guilt, helplessness, and hopelessness.  [Latin de- + premere; see per-4, to press.]  MOODY:  1.  Subject to periods of depression.  2.  Given to frequent changes of a particular state of mind or emotion; temperamental.  [Old English mod, disposition; see me-1, expressing certain qualities of mind.]


SPIRITED:  Characterized as animated, vigorous, or courageous.  [Latin spiritus, breath.]  CALM:  1.  Not excited or agitated; composed.  2.  Having tranquility or serenity.  HOPEFUL:  1. Having confidence.  2.  Desiring and considering possible.  HUMOROUS:  Given to humour, which came to indicate changing moods or states of mind, particularly whimsical and capricious fancies that, when revealed in action, provide amusement to others.  COURAGEOUS: Having or characterized by the state or quality of mind or spirit that enables one to face danger, fear, or vicissitudes with self-possession, confidence, and resolution.  [Latin cor; see kerd-, heart.]


photo by S. A. Bort, 22 September 2013

definitions from The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition